Federal Aviation Administration philosophy regarding simulator use in the airman certification system is stated. Airman certification requirements, specified in the Federal Aviation Regulations, are expressed in behavioral terms. Distinctions between simulator uses for training, evaluation, and gaining operational experience are discussed. A methodology for determining systematically and objectively how simulators may be used for pilot performance evaluation is derived from instructional system design. An experimental design, appropriate for validation studies of pilot performance evaluations in simulators, is referenced.