Results of child restraint system performance during dynamic testing of proper and improper installation configurations are presented and discussed. Over 75 frontal and oblique sled tests were performed using either an SA1001 six-month old infant size, an SA103C three-year-old toddler size or a VIP-6C six-year-old size dummy. Also included are results of sled tests of restraint systems (both commercially available and homemade/improvised) which are intended to protect larger size children. Data presented include head and knee excursions compared with available space in selected vehicles as well as head and chest accelerations and HIC values where applicable. High-speed movie coverage was used for the objective evaluation of dummy kinematics and the subjective evaluation of soft tissue loading and its injury-producing potential.Comparisons are made, based upon the results of the study, between proper and commonly observed improper installation performance with regard to FMVSS 213 and the proposed CMVSS 213 performance criteria.Data from the National Crash Severity System (NCSS) were examined to determine the most appropriate angle and sled test conditions for evaluating child restraint systems in oblique impacts. The results of oblique sled tests of several restraint devices using the infant, toddler and six-year-old size dummies are also presented and compared with the available space in selected vehicles.This work was partially funded by Transport Canada, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, and Calspan ATC.NOTE: The views, findings, and opinions reflected in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official views of the sponsoring agencies.