This paper describes an upper leg impact simulator that is representative of the dynamics of impacts between the pedestrian hip or upper leg and the vehicle hood edge.
Cadaver tests have been analyzed to obtain the actual velocity of the upper leg as it strikes the hood edge. It is found that the impact velocity of the hip or upper leg onto the hood edge is approximately one third of the vehicle velocity for a conventional vehicle front.
The MADYMO computer program is used to study the effects of different hood edge locations, relative to the bumper, on the total body dynamics of the pedestrian. It is found that changes in the location of the hood edge cause significant changes in the head and torso impact with the hood of the vehicle.
Several techniques are discussed for examining the benefits of different hood edge locations on total body injury. One of these, an influence factor, combines injury information from actual accident data for the various parts of the body with the impact forces from the mathematical simulations. Based on this factor, there appears to be a hood edge location that may mitigate injuries to both children and adults.