Diesel engines are adjusted to manufacturers' specifications when produced and placed in service, but varying degrees of maintenance and wear can cause changes in engine performance and exhaust emissions. Maladjustments were made on two heavy-duty diesel engines typically used in buses in an effort to simulate some degree of wear and/or lack of maintenance. Emissions were characterized over steady-state and transient engine operation, in both baseline and maladjusted configurations. Selected maladjustments of the Cummins VTB-903 substantially increased HC, smoke and particulate emission levels. Maladjustments of the Detroit Diesel 6V-71 coach engine resulted in lower HC and NOX emission levels, but higher CO emissions, smoke, and particulate.