This paper presents a summary of the National Transportation Safety Board's study on child motor vehicle passenger protection. Fifty-three accident investigations were conducted involving infants and small children, both restrained and unrestrained. Three public hearings were held throughout the country to hear testimony on child passenger safety.Accident cases are presented to highlight the crash consequences to unrestrained children and the dramatic lifesaving and injury prevention benefits of child safety seats. Misuse of child safety seats is identified as a significant problem and various means to reduce this problem are presented. The benefits, limitations, and loopholes of child passenger protection laws are discussed and the paper suggests elements that could be incorporated into an effective child passenger protection law.