Three Applications of a Mathematical Model, PRAKIMOD, in Frontal Collisions 840857
PRAKIMOD has until now been mostly used for simulating pedestrian accidents. It is also a very convenient tool for studying frontal crashes, especially for determining the values of data that are not easily accessible from direct measurements. After a short description of the model and of the belt system, three examples of application are shown. The first one concerns the distribution of energy transfers from a dummy restrained by a shoulder belt and a knee bolster to the different parts of its environment and to the frontal structure of a car. The second one is an attempt to evaluate the respective influences of some parameters (such as the joint stiffnesses or mass distributions among the body parts) on the dummy's propensity for submarining. The third one concerns the problem of separating the effects of neck forces on the one hand, and of a direct impact on the steering wheel on the other hand. The results obtained are discussed, particularly questions of validation as concern matters of regulation.