Toyota succeeded in the fall of 1984 in manufacturing a complex engine and transmission control system using a newly developed single-chip microcomputer. This microcomputer, equipped with an 8K-byte ROM ( Read Only Memory) and a 256-byte RAM ( Random Access Memory), a powerful real time processing function, and a high-speed optimum instruction set, is better suited for automobiles. Application of the latest CMOS technology has enabled lower power consumption and improved noise immunity. The new system, which includes a new function; the electronic spark advance with knock control in addition to the conventional sophisticated system, has greatly improved the performance and driveability of vehicles. The newly designed electronic control unit (ECU) has been greatly improved in reliability and has not changed in its size with the adoption of the highly integrated new microcomputer, which is due to the fact that it uses fewer LSIs ( Large Scale Integrated circuits) than the conventional ECU, although it includes the great additional function.