Cavitation erosion may sometimes occur on the cylinder liners or cylinder blocks to cause serious troubles to penetrate them. We made clear that its phenomenon was resulted from the liner vibration by piston slap. A slapping phenomenon arises in a piston and a striking force on that occasion brings about vibration of the liner. Its vibration produces cooling water pressure fluctuation in a water jacket. When magnitude of pressure fluctuation becomes larger than static pressure of cooling water, air bubbles generate. Therefore when the liner vibration is calculated, the possibility of the generation of cavitation can be estimated. We studied the new calculation model to calculate the vibration force by piston slap and made a FEM model of the cylinder liner and block to calculate the transient response of the liner. Then we got a good relation between measured and calculated liner vibration.