1985-01-01

Load Transfer From the Striking Vehicle in Side and Pedestrian Impacts 856082

The level at which forces are transmitted from the striking vehicle in side impacts may influence the response of the struck car in several different ways. A better contact between the front bumper of the striking and the sill area of the struck car has been considered to be desirable in this respect.
In side impacts, the most frequent direction of the impact is from 3 and 9 o'clock, while the direction of the forces is usually from 2 and 10 o'clock due to the velocity of the struck car. A European car and the EEVC moving deformable barrier have, therefore, been used in a crabbed mode to study the problem of load transfer at different levels above the ground. Volvo and Saab cars were used as targets in 55 km/h side impact with an APROD-81 side impact dummy placed on the struck side in the front seat. The results indicate that a difference in the level at which the loads were applied could influence the deformations, the kinematics of the struck cars, and the loading of the occupant.
Studies of the mechanisms of injury to pedestrians hit by cars have indicated that a reduction of the severity of the injuries to the lower extremity could probably be achieved by lowering the point of first impact. This would not necessarily influence the overall kinematics of the body in a negative way. An attempt has been made to assess the influence on different injury-related parameters by lowering the level of first contact and increasing the compliance of the car front structures. As tools for this study, a physical and a mathematical model of the pedestrian with particular emphasis on the lower extremity have been used. The results indicate a lowering of the level of load transfer would have more influence on some injury- related parameters and changing the compliance of these structures more influence on others.
The results of this combined project support the theory that a lower level aboveground of the leading force transmitting structures of the car front would be beneficial in both types of accident

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