1985-01-01

Simplified Test Recommendations for Pedestrian Protection 856119

Pedestrian accidents are a serious problem in many countries, and some form of vehicle design recommendations to improve pedestrian protection are urgently required.
Research has shown that in an accident the severity of injury is influenced mainly by impact speed, shape of the car, stiffness of the car components struck by the pedestrian, and the stature and strength of the pedestrian (young or old, frail or strong). A measure of the importance of these variables has now been demonstrated, but limitations, in the performance of dummies and gaps in existing knowledge, particularly a human tolerance, have also been identified. These limitations reduce the precision with which car design requirements for pedestrian safety may be specified. Obtaining further information and proving a test dummy to overcome these limitations may be a lengthy process.
Sufficient information is available to allow generalised recommendations to be compiled that could be used as guidelines until more precise requirements may be determined.
This paper proposes a set of simple guidelines for the depth and stiffness of protection to be built into the various components of the car front, which are determined by the shape chosen for the front profile. Meeting these guidelines should insure a good level of protection but, although necessary, they may not be entirely sufficient, and further experience may eventually suggest some fine tuning of the proposals.
This paper shows that for the areas of a car that are important for pedestrian safety (bumper, bonnet leading edge, and bonnet top), the protection requirements may vary considerably according to the overall shape of the front of the car.
It can be shown that the major safe characteristics of these areas may be isolated and examined (with due regard to the overall shape of the car) to assess their potential for causing injury.

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