The combustion processes in the prechamber and the main chamber of a small indirect injection (I.D.I.) diesel engine were observed simultaneously by high-speed photography. These observations made it possible to characterize the behavior of flames in both chambers, that is, ignition of fuel, developing and rotating flames in the prechamber, and a flame jet spouting into the main chamber. The effect of engine variables, such as fuel injection timing, cross-sectional area of a throat, fuel injector location, and a recess in a piston top, on the combustion process as well as the engine performance were considered. A flame jet spouting into the main chamber separated into two directions and induced two vortexes. Brown sooty flames appeared along the prechamber wall and inside the flame jet which struck on the piston top. The higher-velocity flame jet and the two Intense vortexes induced by the flame jet realized superior fuel consumption and lower smoke emission.