This paper is a systematic investigation of the effects of combustion and injection systems on hydrocarbon(HC) and particulate emissions from a DI diesel engine. Piston cavity diameter, swirl ratio, number of injection nozzle openings, and injection direction are varied as the experimental parameters, and the constituents in the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of the particulate were analyzed.
The results show that the emission characteristics of deep dish chambers greatly differ from those of shallow dish chambers varying with the number of nozzle openings, the injection direction, and swirl intensity. The HC analysis shows mainly low carbon number gaseous HC constituents, and there is a tendency towards increasing polynucleation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon(PAH) in SOF with increasing soot formation. Additionally it was found that the particulate concentration can be expressed as an exponential function of the Bosch smoke density for a wide range of engine combustion conditions.