The concept of oxygen enriched charging (OEC) was exploratively examined as a means of reducing particulate emissions from a direct injection (DI) diesel engine. A single cylinder DI engine was operated with intake gas oxygen concentrations of 21% to 29%, under a constant engine speed of 40 Hz, and several load conditions. It was found that OEC reduces particulate emissions from a DI diesel engine for all operating conditions tested. Insoluble particulate is especially suppressed by OEC at high load conditions. Oxygen enriched charging has little effect on particulate size distribution at high loads when the mass fraction of extractables is low. Fuel consumption, at constant injection timing, is improved a little by OEC. Emissions of NOx increase exponentially with increasing oxygen concentration. Ignition delay is decreased by OEC and this allows injection timing to be retarded to reduce NOx emissions without increasing the specific fuel consumption.