This paper presents the result of a theoretical study on the effects of particle size distribution on the soot particle measurement method. The principal equations are rear-ranged into a concise form, and a wide variation of size distribution functions are introduced to calculate the effects. It was found that the mean extinction coefficient is very weakly dependent on the shape of size distribution functions and can be approximated to that for the Sauter mean diameter with insignificant error. The volumetric density of soot particles can be obtained by light transmittance measurement on a single wavelength, and this is affected only by the estimated value for the Sauter mean diameter. The error due to the estimation is under 5%. On the other hand, it was found that the light transmittance measurement is insufficient to obtain size distribution or the Sauter mean diameter of soot particles.