The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency is studying the merits of four strategies to reduce hydrocarbon emissions from motor vehicles. The four strategies include onboard control of vehicle refueling emissions. Stage II controls on service stations, tightening of existing vehicle evaporative control regulations, and restrictions on gasoline volatility. In this paper, emissions reductions and costs projected for each strategy will be compared. Of the four strategies, onboard refueling controls on new cars would be the most effective in reducing nationwide hydrocarbon emissions; however, the incremental emission reduction would be relatively small compared with future reductions from controls already in place.