This report presents the results of an EPA test program designed to characterize benzene refueling emissions. It also examines several other available benzene refueling emission studies to form a combined data base. The combined data base is used to develop a prediction equation which estimates benzene refueling emissions using the following three parameters: 1) dispensed fuel temperature, 2) difference between fuel tank temperature and dispensed fuel temperature, and 3) benzene concentration in the liquid fuel. The prediction equation then uses information on national average gasoline benzene content and pertinent temperature information to estimate a national average benzene refueling emission factor of 0.048 grams benzene/gallon. This refueling emission factor is combined with the latest nationwide gasoline consumption figures to estimate a national benzene refueling emission inventory.