Injury Tolerance Characteristics of the Adult Human Lower Extremities Under Static and Dynamic Loading 861925
A review of the literature dealing with the injury tolerance of the lower extremities in quantitative terms is provided. The data stem from sources ranging from Weber (1859) to as recent as Culver (1984) and in all cases involve tests of embalmed or unembalmed cadaveric specimens. The strength of the femur (thigh bone) and tibia (shin bone) have been depicted primarily in terms of the peak axial compressive force or bending moment associated with fracture-producing tests. Peak forces involved in fracturing the patella (knee cap) are reported for static and dynamic distributed loads involving both padded and rigid contact surfaces. One study is described where patella data are available for punch-through type fractures resulting from loading by small diameter impactors. Limited data are provided for hip joint dislocation and/or pelvic fracture as a result of loading through the femur. Finally, limited data are also included for injury at the knee and ankle joints.