Simulation of Road Crash Facial Lacerations By Broken Windshields 870320
The facial laceration test has been proposed as an addition to the dummy injury criteria of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 208. To better understand laceration conditions as they actually occur, three road crashes of increasing severity, all involving facial laceration by the broken (cracked) windshield and one involving partial ejection, have been simulated physically and analytically. The physical simulations used vehicle test bucks, the Hybrid III head with the chamois facial coverings of the facial laceration test, and a piston - constrained Head Impactor. Computer simulations of the three crashes were also carried out using the CALSPAN 3D “CVS” and the 2D “DRISIM” computer programs. The computer simulations provide insight into the effective mass of the head and body on windshield contact, and the forces, velocities, and accelerations involved. The computer simulations show how the impact velocity and effective mass of the head can be much higher than expected, due to body kinematics and loading of the head by the body during windshield contact. These simulations help explain accidents in which the windshield was broken by head contact in a 7.5 km/hr (5 mph) crash, and in which the head was partially ejected in a 21 km/hr (13 mph) crash.
The physical simulations approximated the damage observed in the three accidents. In addition, the reduced laceration and potentially reduced ejection by the use of glass-plastic glazing was demonstrated.
This paper presents the views of the authors, and not necessarily those of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.