A methodology for assessing the cost-effectiveness of diesel fuel modification as a particulate control technique is presented. The cost-effectiveness of three diesel fuel modification scenarios have been calculated and compared with the cost-effectiveness of alternative particulate control strategies. The three fuel modifications which were evaluated are: (a) reduced sulfur content; (b) reduced sulfur content in conjunction with reduced aromatics content and; (c) reduced sulfur and aromatics contents in conjunction with reduced ninety percent distillation temperature.Sulfur content is the only fuel property which can be altered to affect diesel-derived sulfate particulate levels in the atmosphere. The cost-effectiveness of fuel sulfur reduction is compared to the cost-effectiveness of control measures for other sources of sulfate particulate.Aromatics content and ninety percent point reductions affect only the carbonaceous fraction of diesel particulate. Available data indicates that the cost-effectiveness of these fuel modifications is at least an order of magnitude poorer than EPA estimates for the cost-effectiveness of particulate trap/oxidizers and related engine modifications.