A new technique of translating linear to rotary motion, using the Stiller- Smith mechanism, can be applied to the design of internal combustion engines and compressors. This new mechanism produces purely sinusoidal motion of the pistons relative to crank angle, which is a different motion from that produced by a conventional slider-crank mechanism, Influence of this sinusoidal motion on thermodynamic performance of engines and compressors was investigated theoretically and experimentally. Data are presented from a numerical analysis of compression and of spark-ignited combustion. Also, pressure-time curves for a standard and a modified (long connecting rod) spark ignition engine are compared. All data confirm that there is little thermodynamic difference between the Stiller-Smith and slider-crank devices.