Interaction of Human Cadaver and Hybrid III Subjects with a Steering Assembly 872202
Nineteen sled impact tests were conducted simulating a frontal collision exposure for an unrestrained driver. The deceleration sled buck configuration utilized the passenger compartment of a late model compact passenger vehicle, a rigid driver's seat, and a custom fabricated energy-absorbing steering column and wheel assembly. Sled impact velocities ranged from 24.1 to 42.6 km/hr. The purpose of the study was to investigate the kinematic and kinetic interaction of the driver and the energy-absorbing steering assembly and their relationship to the thoracic/abdominal injuries produced.
The similarities and differences between human cadaver and anthropomorphic dummy subjects were quantified. A Hybrid III test subject subject developed (1) similar axial steering column forces to those produced by the cadaver subjects, (2) lower initial peak spinal acceleration than the cadaver subjects, and (3) larger steering wheel rim moments about the pitch axis than when the cadavers upper abdomen contacted the lower wheel rim. Calculations of the effective mass of the test subjects interacting with the column assembly also demonstrated similarity. The averages of the steering rim deformations suggest more rim deformation at the top and less deformation at the bottom for the cadaver relative to the Hybrid III. Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale injuries sustained in the cadaver exposures ranged from 2 to 5. At the 42.6 km/hr test condition three out of seven cadavers sustained liver injuries. Energy calculations lead to the conclusion the cadaver thorax absorbed a greater proportion of the initial kinetic energy than did the Hybrid III thorax.
Richard M. Morgan, Dennis C. Schneider, Rolf H. Eppinger, Alan M. Nahum, Jeffrey H. Marcus, Joseph Awad, David Dainty, Steve Forrest
31st Stapp Car Crash Conference
Biomechanics of Impact Injury and Injury Tolerances of the Thorax-Shoulder Complex-PT-45, SAE 1987 Transactions-V96-87, Biomechanics of Impact Injuries and Injury Tolerances of the Abdomen, Lumbar Spine, and Pelvis Complex-PT-47, Thirty-First Stapp Car Crash Conference Proceedings-P-202