Propulsion-Induced Effects Caused by Out-of- Ground Effects 872307

Propulsion induced effects encountered by moderate- to high-disk loading STOVL or VSTOL aircraft out-of-ground effect during hover and transition between hover and wing-borne flight are discussed. Descriptions of the fluid flow phenomena are presented along with an indication of the trends obtained from experimental investigations. In particular, three problem areas are reviewed: 1) the performance losses sustained by a VSTOL aircraft hovering out-of-ground effect, 2) the induced aerodynamic effects encountered as a VSTOL aircraft flies on the combination of powered and aerodynamic lifts between hover and cruise out-of-ground effect, and 3) the aerodynamic characteristics caused by deflected thrust during maneuvering flight over a wide ranges of both angle of attack and Mach number.


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