The synchronous belt employed in the valve train of automotive engines is operated under fluctuating load. Two types of the belt vibration are observed. One is the well-known lateral vibration. The other is the vibration in the belt running direction which may cause the resonant vibration of the camshaft rotation and may affect the belt life. The purpose of this paper is to describe an analysis of the latter vibration.This vibration was analyzed using the model composed of the inertia moment of the camshaft system and the nonlinear elasticity of the belt in the running direction. The predicted resonant frequency and amplitude were in good agreement with the measured ones.The influence of each factor of the model on the vibration was also investigated. The stiffness in the belt running direction that is determined by the tooth distortion When the belt engages with the pUlley should be increased to reduce the amplitudes of the resonant Vibration.