Improvements in the efficiency of Diesel engines, expecially when retaining the original displacement, normally lead to higher mechanical stresses on the individual engine components. Additionally higher ingnition pessures, nowaday reaching a value of around 140 bars, poor fuel quality and the chemical wear associated with it, combine to negatively effect the life expectancy of cylinder liners. Therefore a cylinder liner must have a corresponding resistance against mechanical and chemical wear. Furthermore the liner material should have the necessary strength properties.
Individually these material properties can be obtained easily. A combination of all three material properties in one material is difficult to achieve. So in the past a compromise had to be made when choosing the material quality for a liner, where the solutions of immediate problems were paramount.