Development of a Computationally Fast Equilibrium-Equivalent 4-Stroke SI Engine Model 880130
A set of algebraic equations has been developed to replace the iterative thermochemical equilibrium subroutine in zero-dimensional and quasidimensional engine modeling codes. These equations allow calculation of the equilibrium composition given only the equivalence ratio and the fuel characteristics, thereby allowing the composition calculations to be performed external to the iterative main loop. This technique results in a decrease of the required computational time by up to a factor of 13, dependent upon the equivalence ratio and the fuel. The predictions of the equilibrium-equivalent code agree with those of a traditional equilibrium code within 2.5% for the four fuels examined (CH4, C3H8, C2H5OH, and i-C8H18) for compression ratios between 5 and 12:1, intake manifold pressures between 50 and 100 kPa, and equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 1.5. A technique for including constrained equilibrium to account for freezing of CO oxidation during the expansion stroke is also presented. Also, if exact replication of the equilibrium predictions is required, it is possible to use the equilibrium-equivalent technique to produce accurate initial guesses for the residual fraction, equilibrium temperatures, and equilibrium pressures to be used during the equilibrium calculations, thereby resulting in a computational time savings of up to a factor of about 5 for the same ranges.