A transient three-dimensional model has been developed to simulate the thermal and conversion characteristics of nonadiabatic monolithic converters operating under flow maldistribution conditions. The model accounts for convective heat and mass transport, gas-solid heat and mass transfer, axial and radial heat conduction, chemical reactions and the attendant heat release, and heat loss to the surroundings.The model was used to analyze the transient response of an axisymmetric ceramic monolith system (catalyzed monolith, mat, and steel shell) during converter warm-up, sustained heavy load, and engine misfiring. The simulation indicates that high solid temperatures are encountered during sustained heavy load or engine misfiring, while steep temperature gradients are developed during the converter warm-up period. Flow maldistribution and radial heat loss are major sources for the thermal gradients. The predicted temperature profiles provide a basis for the analysis of thermal stresses and fatigue in the monolith converter assembly.