The Development of a 1.4 Litre Gasoline Engine to Meet New European Emission Levels 880314
The introduction of increasingly severe exhaust emissions legislation in Europe was coupled with tax incentives in some countries, to encourage early effect in the market place. This led Ford to develop its 1.4L engine to meet the new standards in the European Fiesta, Escort and Orion models.
Changes made to the base ECE 15.04 emission level specification included reduced compression ratio, new carburettor, 3D electronic ignition, revised transmission gear ratios, and the addition of a new pulse air system which is described in detail.
This pulse air system was developed to provide up to 200 litras/min air flow into the exhaust ports. The use of pulse air together with extensive fuel and ignition calibration changes enabled the program objectives to be met without the use of a catalyst.