In Japan, about 5.6 billion tons of freight are transported annually and 90% of this figure is supported by trucks. Among them, the heavy vehicles of GVW 20ton are employed as one of the main means of such transportation and they are produced about 40,000 units annually. For these trucks, over 80 types of diesel engines have been developed during the past 20 years. Today, there are more than 30 domestic types.The engine displacement ranges from 8.8 to 18.0 liters and the maximum output spreads from 270hp (199kW) to 380hp (280kW). The naturally aspiration type occupies 70% and the turbocharged or turbo-intercooled type takes the remaining portion.The authors present the design concept and the technical background which are involved in the above-mentioned engines. They also describe the technology which concerns combustion, gas exchange, construction, electronic control, etc. and the ‘total power system’ (some simultaneously managing system) formulated to realize such engines.