Aircraft thermal management issues are reviewed in order to determine areas necessary for additional research. Particular topics discussed include the philosophy of traditional thermal control systems, the avionics cooling problem, and the application of heat pipes to aircraft systems. Avionics cooling includes a summary of current spacecraft cooling that is applicable. Analysis includes results for free convective cooling, forced convective cooling, and nucleate boiling heat transfer for low gravity applications as well as artificial gravity generation. Heat pipe applications are discussed with particular emphasis on the effects of high acceleration and nonuniform heat loads.