Impact of a barium fuel additive on the mutagenicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of diesel exhaust particulate emissions 881651
This study examines the effects of a barium-based fuel additive on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and Ames test mutagenic activity of exhaust particulate matter from a diesel engine commonly used in underground mining equipment. The additive, sold for smoke suppression as Lubrizol 565 and containing 20 - 25% barium, was tested at three concentrations in the fuel: 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 g/liter. A Deutz F6L 912W 6-cylinder, air-cooled, naturally-aspirated, indirect-injection engine was operated on a programmed, light-duty cycle and particulate matter was collected by dilution tunnel sampling using Teflon-coated, glass-fiber filters.
At the manufacturer's recommended level of the additive in the fuel, 3.0 g/liter, particulate emissions were elevated 30% for either intake condition (both with p < 0.01). The barium-based fuel additive also produced statistically significant increases (p < 0.05 or 0.01) in both exhaust mutagenicity (i.e., 160%, standard engine air intake condition with 1.5 g/liter) and exhaust PAH concentration (i.e., 60%, restricted intake with 0.75 g/liter and 79%, restricted intake with 1.5 g/liter). These results suggest that the barium additive should not be used for smoke suppression under light-duty operation. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the additive's effects in heavy-duty work cycles.
Citation: Draper, W., Phillips, J., and Zeller, H., "Impact of a barium fuel additive on the mutagenicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of diesel exhaust particulate emissions," SAE Technical Paper 881651, 1988, https://doi.org/10.4271/881651. Download Citation
William M. Draper, Jane Phillips, H. William Zeller
California Public Health Foundation, Berkeley, Ca
1988 SAE International Fall Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exhibition
SAE Transactions Journal of Fuels and Lubricants-V97-3