LDV measurements of the tangential component of the flow field velocity within the cylinder of a motored, real diesel engine are reported. A comparison of the fluid-dynamic behavior between toroidal and four-lobes square combustion chambers is shown. Tests were carried out over a range of engine speed of 500 and 1500 rpm. An ensemble-average data processing technique was used to analyze the velocity data recorded at 30 CAD BTDC and at TDC during compression stroke. The measurements were made at a depth of 3.0 mm from the piston head in two axial sections of the four-lobe combustion chamber.The results show that the four-lobe, square combustion chamber reduces the bulk swirl and increases the turbulence at the two engine speeds. The square cup transforms more of the kinetic energy of the bulk flows into turbulent kinetic energy than toroidal cup.At TDC the tangential velocity profile tends to solid body along the short section and to flat profile along the long section.