Electric Vehicle Design and Performance Using Advanced Batteries
Series of designs of compact and full-size passenger cars and minvans were formulated using state-of-the-art electric driveline components and battery modules/cells. The performance of each of the designs was simulated using the ELVEC. Computer runs were made for constant speeds between 40 and 88.5 km/h and the J227D and FUDS driving cycles as well as maximum effort accelerations. The simulations indicated for the three vehicle types the target ranges and acceleration times could be met for both the near-production and advanced batteries. The targets were consistent with those established for the various batteries by the DOE Battery Goals Task Force in 1988. The energy consumption values calculated for vehicles utilizing DC drivelines were consistently lower by 15-25% than those for vehicles using AC drivelines primarily due to the higher efficiency of the transmission in the DC power-train system. The attractive performance of the formulated electric vehicle designs emphasizes the need to give greater attention in the future to battery cost, life, and maintenance issues than they have often received in the past. Successful marketing of electric vehicles now depends to a large extent on these issues about which there is presently considerable uncertainty.