Effects of mixture formation of fuel injection systems on gasoline engine performance have been studied. Several fuel injectors which produced various spray diameters and spray patterns were used in engine tests. Spray behavior in an air flow was investigated to clarify the spray distribution through the intake valve. The relationships between the spray distribution near the intake valve and the HC emission or engine response were considered. The amount of HC emissions increased if fuel was injected when the intake valve was open with a heavy load (e.g. an engine speed of 2000 rpm and a manifold pressure of 98 kPa), because fuel would flow into the cylinders one-sidedly, causing a liquid film to form. The amount of HC emissions also increased if fuel was injected when the intake valve was open with a light load (e.g. during idling), because the fuel injection pulse would be short and fuel would flow into the cylinders, but the air-fuel mixing would not be enough to cause a misfire. Reducing the spray droplets diameters, spreading fuel uniformly on the intake valve, and reducing the fuel film on the cylinder wall, all could prevent an increase in HC emissions.