This paper introduces the details of a low noise design realized by fully utilizing the theoretical methods for the prediction of noise and vibration, applied to Hino's new “H07D” engine.In the development of this engine, the reduction of the vehicle interior noise was one of the highest priority aims. For this purpose, the influence of the engine noise on the vehicle noise was firstly investigated to identify the major noise sources. Then, making best use of noise prediction techniques (FEM, etc.), the noise radiation mechanisms were clarified and the components identified as major noise sources were re-designed. In these improvements, the theoretical techniques also predicted carefully the effect of design changes on the related components, including their installation in an engine as required. These procedures achieved a remarkable noise reduction of the engine by cost effective methods.