Cost estimators and engineers are deep in a fast-changing world of new concepts and high technology and their assigned tasks are undergoing an irreversible and often turbulent change. While change has always been a part of experience, its scope and velocity are much greater than at any time in the past, making analytical versatility a prerequisite for keeping pace in this environment. Cost estimators are experiencing cost management impacts of such circumstances now, but in the 1990s will experience the full impact of more detailed costing demanded for this advanced technology.With these circumstances, how is the role of the cost estimator evolving? Overall, today's emphasis continues to be for quality products and for innovative “new” state-of-the-art techniques and methodologies, a demand that must be approached in a logical manner.What are the main concerns--the “DOD Cost Management Issues”? Some of these high-level issues, these concerns, are new and some others are long-standing and unresolved problems that have been with us for many years. Presented and discussed are the five most important issues generally agreed upon by Congressional and DOD leadership and the blue ribbon panels.