Current demands for shift comfort and driveability, and the need for interaction between the transmission and other vehicle electronic systems provide the impetus for introducing electronic control systems for transmissions. The standard functions of such systems have proven their worth and contributed towards satisfying these demands. For this reason, despite the additional cost involved, most automatic transmissions will be electronically controlled within five years. The need to optimize fuel consumption leads to wider gear ratio spreads. New systems which satisfy this demand will be 5-speed automatic transmissions and CVT in particular, and perhaps twin-clutch transmissions for special applications. All these new systems will need electronic control to reach competitive performance levels.