CJB Developments Limited, (CJBD) assisted by a number of distinguished consultants, undertook a study on behalf of the European Space Agency (ESA) to identify Critical Technologies relating to Spacecraft Habitability. Critical Technologies in this context are those defined as requiring a solution in order that the objectives of the European Manned Space Infrastructure (EMSI) can be met.
Habitability is defined as those design elements that provide the environmental comfort, quality and necessities to support a human being in space. As well as the elements necessary for survival, such as provision of food, water, oxygen and waste product removal, it encompasses medicine, hygiene, clothing, recreation and other aspects of human interaction, including physiological and psychological health, which go towards establishing a welcoming and tolerable environment. A measure of the success in addressing these requirements will be the ability of the crew to live efficiently and comfortably in the environment.
The design elements of habitability for this study have been identified as follows:-