1990-07-01

Evaluation of Water Treatment Systems Producing Reagent Grade Water 901424

Results of recent studies conducted to evaluate 4 water-treatment systems (including pre-filter, reverse osmosis, carbon absorption, deionization, and membrane filtration) showed inconsistent performance among the generic components. In addition, a wide range of values were observed for contaminants such as microorganisms, bacterial endotoxin, total oxidizable carbons, chlorine residual, conductivity, temperature, and pH. Results demonstrate the need for careful attention to system component selection and placement in order to provide required water quality.
Water treatment and product technology application have undergone vast changes over the last 5 years. While more efficient and compact components for water treatment have been modified or designed, precision means for measuring water quality have not advanced as rapidly.
The design and operation of a water system contribute greatly to the quality of water. Chemically pure water is non-existent, yet, it is possible and cost-beneficial to produce a grade of water for general and specific use. Potable or source water can be treated by a variety of water purification systems to meet specific water quality parameters where impurities in the water can interfere with or alter tests or be life-threatening.
High-purity water production is a manufacturer-consumer joint responsibility. Water systems with improper design, operation, and maintenance procedures impact on water quality. Prior to selecting a water treatment system, it is suggested that the user should predetermine allowable levels of contaminants and recognize the advantages and disadvantages of specific water-treatment processes.

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