AFR and Emissions Calculations for Two-Stroke Cycle Engines 901599
This paper demonstrates the very useful technique of calculating air-to-fuel ratio, AFR, from exhaust gas emissions for a two-stroke cycle engine. Such methods are widely used for four-stroke engines where direct air flow measurement has now become redundant. Two modified methods are presented and compared with three standard methods, showing the accuracy to be quite good for a large set of test data from a standard two-stroke engine. A procedure for estimating AFR of the in-cylinder burning region, using trapping efficiencies, is presented for stratified charge engines, such as those with direct fuel injection. Accuracy of emissions measurement is assessed by calculating the total dry exhaust emissions, a method which could easily be automated for general test cell use. Finally, exhaust gas molecular weight and wet/dry ratio calculations are considered.