For suiting turbocharged diesel engine to the condition of sudden acceleration, several compound charging systems are studied. The inlet wave in a resonant system is similar to the small amplitude wave. By means of the mechanics-acoustics analog method, the physical principle of resonant supercharging is researched. In order to obtain the suitable sizes of resonance system for a diesel engine, the computer simulation and optimization are adopted. The test on the experimental equipment of a real engine proved that the transient response of a turbocharged diesel engine could be raised by means of compound supercharging including resonant system.