This paper identifies relevant high-payoff technologies and their performance goals required to enhance economic viability of the high-speed civil transport (HSCT). The emphasis is on the aerodynamic technologies, but improvements in several other technology areas are also addressed. Primary design constraints are presented to bound the problem and establish a baseline for comparison. The economics of planar and nonplanar configurations and their projected advances are discussed. Different approaches for improvements in skin friction, wave drag, and induced drag are presented. In addition to aerodynamics, integration of advancements in other areas also needs attention. Barrier problems are identified. It is concluded that performance enhancements achieved by developing and applying advanced aerodynamic technology will contribute significantly toward enhancing HSCT economic viability. However, improvements in other technology areas and manufacturing cost reductions are also needed.