1990-10-01

The Composition of Gasoline Engine Hydrocarbon Emissions - An Evaluation of Catalyst and Fuel Effects 902074

Twenty-three hydrocarbon components were analysed in the exhaust emissions from a 2.3 litre gasoline engine. The effect of a three-way catalyst on emission rates was investigated, as was the effect of addition to fuel of specific aromatic and olefinic compounds. The addition of 1-hexene and 1-octene (olefins) caused statistically significant increases in reactive olefins - ethene and propene - in the exhaust. The addition of benzene and toluene led to increases in these compounds in the exhaust, and indicated that whilst fuel-toluene is the main source of toluene emissions, the emission of benzene has sources in addition to fuel-benzene.
A three-way catalyst, when operating at > 600°C, eliminated most hydrocarbons except methane and traces of the light aromatics. At idle, however, the catalyst exhibited substantial selectivity towards different hydrocarbons according to their ease-of-oxidation. Even under full-load enrichment certain reactive compounds were removed by the catalyst, for example ethyne (acetylene) and propyne (methylacetylene). However, during full-load enrichment benzene emissions were increased by the catalyst due to, it is believed, demethylation of other aromatics.

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