Laboratory Evaluation of Safety-Related Additives for Neat Methanol Fuel 902156
An extensive literature search was conducted and potential additive candidates were identified to improve the safety aspects associated with the use of methanol as a motor fuel. Before any laboratory measurements were conducted, candidate additives were evaluated for possible formation of known or suspected toxic compounds as combustion products. The remaining potential additives were then screened for their effectiveness in improving methanol fuel properties in a laboratory test program emphasizing flame luminosity, lubricity, and flammability. Flame luminosity was measured with a specially designed system to monitor the light produced by the flame in lux. Lubricity was measured with a Ball-on-Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator (BOCLE). For flammability limits, a device was designed to determine the presence of flammable vapors above the liquid at different additive concentrations. Additive packages were identified for neat methanol fuel, and each package was evaluated for synergistic effects with the same test procedures. Toluene and a proprietary formulation produced the greatest potential for luminosity improvement at concentrations below 5 volume percent. Fatty acids and organic amine salts were effective at improving the lubricity of the fuel, and butane and butene lowered the flammability limits below -18°C.