Biodynamics of the Total Human Cadaveric Cervical Spine 902309
Spinal trauma produced from motor vehicle accidents, diving accidents, or falls occur at high rates of loading. This study was undertaken to reproduce clinically relevant cervical spine injuries under controlled conditions. Six isolated head - T2 human cadaveric preparations were tested using an electrohydraulic piston actuator at loading rates from 295 to 813 cm/sec. The Hybrid III head-neck was tested similarly at rates from 401 to 683 cm/sec. The input forces for specimen tests were of higher magnitude and shorter duration than the distally measured forces. In contrast, the Hybrid III head-neck revealed similar magnitude and duration force traces from input to output. The specimen preparations were analyzed kinematically at 1200 frames/sec with 20 to 30 retroreflective targets fixed to each level of the cervical spine. With this technique it is possible to temporally follow cervical damage as a function of applied force. Wedge, burst, and anterior compression fractures were documented using CT and cryosectioning techniques. This pathology can be evaluated quantitatively using the target analysis. For example, a burst fracture occurred suddenly and within 2.5 msec, whereas wedge fractures were progressive and took 4 to 5 msec to occur.