Application of a Pedestrian Impact Model to the Determination of Impact Speed 910814
A single segment pedestrian model is used to derive the throw distance - impact speed equations for the vehicle to pedestrian impact. Comparison with staged tests for adult pedestrians and cars shows that the model yields similar head contact positions and head impact velocities as those obtained experimentally. It is shown that the standard distance/velocity equation can be used to describe the pedestrian throw distance to vehicle impact speed relationship when an ‘Impact Factor’ term is introduced to specify the proportion of impact speed effectively transferred to the pedestrian by the impact process. The calculated throw distance and ‘Impact Factor’ to impact speed relations for 9 different car types are compared with the results of 84 staged dummy and cadaver tests. Statistically very highly significant correlation between the calculated and experimental ‘Impact Factors’ is obtained. The potential of using the difference between the pedestrian and vehicle rest positions to determine impact speed is examined and very highly significant correlation is obtained between experimental and calculated data. General correlations are also derived, derived.