Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) of Space Station Freedom are closed loop recirculating systems. Major subsystems of ECLSS (Air, Water, and Temperature and Humidity Control) will require particulate and microbial control. Elimination or reduction of these contaminants can be achieved through the appropriate placement of microbially retentive filters. Current technologies allow particulate removal from gases to 0.01 micron which eliminates all known viruses. Filtration of liquids can remove all particles to 0.04 micron which eliminates all known bacteria, fungi, and many viruses. In addition, sterilizing grade membrane filters can be periodically nondestructively in-situ tested to monitor integrity during service.This paper reviews state of the art technologies of gas and liquid filtration utilized in the semiconductor, pharmaceutical, health care, and food/beverage industries and how similar advanced filtration technology can be adapted for Space Station Freedom.