New Principles of Maglev and Traction Underlying Transportation 911625
There are two well known basic concepts for achieving magnetic levitation of vehicles: one is based on electromagnetic attraction (EMA); and the second method is based on electrodynamic repulsion (EDR). In turn, each of these concepts have at least two variations (1, 2 and 3)1
This paper presents a third form of magnetic levitation known in the USSR as the Magnetic Potential Well (MPW) developed by Kozoriz (4), and in the West as Laithwaite's Magnetic River (14). The MPW effect is based on a dc circuit and exhibits characteristics whereby: the magnetic attraction force passes through a null, before the distance becomes zero, and changes to magnetic repulsion, as a function of interval separating a superconductive (SC) dc electric circuit and a second dc electro and/or permanent magnet, and/or two-wire dc line pair of infinite length.
In a gravity field, a MPW vehicle exhibits stable static magnetic levitation distances of about one-half meter at zero vehicle velocity, either above or below a guideway, with inherent vertical pitch control; and, also inherent lateral yaw control because a null-flux exists laterally also. Furthermore, this MPW null-flux and magnetic force reversal becomes the basis for a unique linear traction motor, through an efficient reversible energy transformation between the magnetic potential energy of a SC circuit and vehicle kinetic energy.
The scope of this paper is limited to abbreviated reviews of the known concepts of EMA and EDR and an explanation of the MPW concept; and, by comparisons, demonstrates the applications of MPW to high speed levitation and propulsion in the USSR. A companion paper (5) derives the mathematical relations needed to reduce the MPW concept to design practice in high speed transit applications, but is limited in scope to final forms of the equations only.