There has been considerable interest in applying remote measuring methods to sample in-use vehicle emissions, and to characterize fleet emission behavior. A Remote Sensing Device (RSD) was used to measure on-road carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from approximately 350 in-use vehicles that had undergone transient mass emission testing at a centralized I/M lane. On-road hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were also measured by the RSD on about 50 of these vehicles. Analysis of the data indicates that the RSD identified a comparable number of the high CO emitters as the two speed I/M test only when an RSD cutpoint much more stringent than current practice was used. Both RSD and I/M had significant errors of omission in identifying High CO Emitters based on the mass emission test. The test data were also used to study the ability of the RSD to characterize fleet CO emissions.