Runway incursions occur when aircraft or vehicles get onto a runway and conflict with aircraft cleared to land or take off on that same runway. All are caused by human error. The Federal Aviation Administration has identified reducing these human errors as a safety priority. Application of new technology is part of the solution. This paper highlights recent actions by the agency in addressing runway incursions and discusses a strategy for development of airport surface traffic automation designed to aid the air traffic controller and the pilot in identifying potential runway incursions. Airport surface traffic automation represents a conflict alert system which adds both automated safety monitoring and tools for the controller to use in reducing surface movement delays.