Effects of Oxygenated Fuels and RVP on Automotive Emissions - Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Program 920326

Exhaust and evaporative emissions were measured as a function of gasoline composition and fuel vapor pressure in a fleet of 20 1989 vehicles. Eleven fuels were evaluated; four hydrocarbon only, four splash blended ethanol fuels (10 vol %), two methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) blends (15 vol %) and one ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) blend (17 vol %). Reid vapor pressures were between 7.8 and 9.6 psi. Exhaust emission results indicated that a reduction in fuel Reid vapor pressure of one psi reduced exhaust HC and CO. Adding oxygenates reduced exhaust HC and CO but increased NOx. Results of evaporative emissions tests on nineteen vehicles indicated a reduction in diurnal emissions with reduced Reid vapor pressure in the non-oxygenated and ethanol blended fuels. However, no reduction in diurnal emissions with the MTBE fuel due to Reid vapor pressure reduction was observed. Reducing Reid vapor pressure had no statistically significant effect on hot soak emissions. Adding ethanol or MTBE increased hot soak emissions. The ethanol increase was significantly larger than the MTBE effect. The effect of ETBE was similar to the MTBE effect in magnitude although not found to be statistically significant in itself. Toxic emissions were also assessed.


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